Category Archives: Science
Technology is one of the most promising career paths that you can decide to pursue today. There are so many technology startups that have come up and the trend is likely to continue in future as technology continues to evolve. Graduates with technology related degrees will therefore be in high demand in future. There are many technology related degrees that you can decide to pursue. The following is a technology careers list that you can use to chart your career path.
1. Food Science & Technology
Food science involves the study of chemical, physical and microbiological makeup of food substances. It draws knowledge from other fields such as biochemistry, biology and chemical engineering in an attempt to understand the food processes. This knowledge is then used to improve consumable products for the benefit of the general public.
Food Technology is a branch of Food Science that involves extensive consumable products research and systematic investigations of food compositions and properties. Food Technology principles are used to enable mass production in the food industry.
Having studied food science and technology, your skills will be very useful in food processing and manufacturing industry. Food Technology and Processing is also another useful path that you can take if you want to become relevant in this industry.
2. Wood Science and Wood Products/Pulp and Paper Technology
This is a field that involves the application of physical, engineering and chemical principles to the study of behavior and analysis of wood products and the processes of conversion of wood into paper products.
As a student in this field, you will study skills such as wood classification, wood testing, processing technologies, product developments and designing of equipments and related systems. Demand for these skills will continue increasing hence a career in this field is very promising.
3. Architectural and Building Sciences/Technology
This is a program that involves application of advanced technologies in construction and design, efficient building operations including lighting, building conservation, retrofitting existing buildings and energy conscious designs. The program draws instruction from environmental control systems, mechanical engineering, civil and structural engineering, computer tools applications, building technology and sustainability.
Architectural and building technology is one field that will continue to grow as the population of the world continues to increase. Individuals and businesses are always trying to improve building conditions and efficiency. Governments will also continue putting in place regulations to ensure safety of buildings. This is therefore a field that can lead to a fulfilling career for those with a passion for architectural and building sciences.
4. Animation, Interactive Technology, Video Graphics and Special Effects
In this program, you learn how to use computer applications to manipulate images and information coming from films, photographs, videos, sound tracks, digital copies and physical objects. Once you learn these, you will be able to communicate massages that simulate contents in real world. Studying this will be advantageous for those who hope to get employment in the media and entertainment industries.
5. Information Technology
Information technology involves the application of telecommunication equipments and computers in storing, transmitting and manipulating data in the context of businesses and other enterprises.
As an IT specialist, companies can hire you as a systems administrator, database manager and many other roles. You could also get a job in consulting firms.
6. Data Processing and Data Processing Technology/Technician
This is a program that prepares you to use computer software and programs in inputting, organizing, verifying, transforming, storing and retrieving information. It draws knowledge from operating systems configurations and data entry applications such as spreadsheets, word processors, database programs, design programs and many other applications.
You will find these skills very useful in research and technological companies as well as any other company that require data entry, analysis and management.
7. Laser and Optical Technology/Technician
Students studying laser technology are taught the principles of optics, laser alignment, electronics and many other advanced laser technologies. As a graduate in this program, you can become electro-optical and laser technician with the ability to repair, test, maintain, calibrate and install medical instruments. You will be able to get employment in instruments manufacturing companies as a photonics engineer or engineering technician.
8. Biomedical Technology/Technician
A biomedical technologist ensures that medical equipments are well maintained, safely functional and properly configured. As a biomedical technologist, you will find employment in clinics, hospitals, private sector companies and even in the military.
9. Instrumentation Technology/Technician
This is a program that enables students to acquire engineering support technical skills in measurements systems, control and procedures. It draws instruction from design and production testing, calibration, automated equipment functioning, instrumentation maintenance and design, reports preparation and many other skills. You will work hand in hand with engineers in providing technical support.
10. Robotics Technology/Technician
This program teaches students technical skills that enable them to give support to engineers involved in the development and use of robots. It involves instruction in the principles of robotics, system maintenance and repair procedures, design and operational testing, specific system types, robots computer systems and many other skills.
There are many other technology based programs that you can specialize in. Many of these programs are in high demand and pursuing them can lead to a satisfying career depending on your dreams and career aspirations.
If you are considering earning a degree in mathematics, the next question is: what can you do with a degree in mathematics? Here is a basic list of careers for math majors.
Financial analysts review the financial sheets of businesses to estimate their future earnings, study macroeconomic trends to project the business’ future earnings and pinpoint products with the greatest profit margin and determine those with the greatest losses. Those who can do quantitative analysis are hired by the private equity industry.
Mathematical models have been the basis of a number of financial products and have been used to design financial products like mortgage backed securities. Mathematical modeling has more mundane uses like building climate models based on historical data to predict the weather next week or study trends in traffic today to determine what solutions could be implemented to prevent massive traffic jams in ten years.
Mathematical modeling is increasingly integrated with the life sciences field. The mathematical modeling of individual cells or entire organisms is increasingly done in the digital world, allowing experiments to be done virtually instead of on live animals.
Actuarial are paid to review the claims history and demographic data of insurance companies. They study the trends in the customer base increases in life expectancy and rising disability rates and then project the impact on the financial outlook of the insurance pool. Actuaries do the in depth analysis that leads to falling life insurance rates as life expectancy rises. Actuaries calculate the costs of changing insurance regulations and price health insurance plans accordingly. Insurance firms like State Farm and Farmers’ Insurance are the primary employers of actuaries.
Accounting can be done with a business degree or a math degree with a number of accounting specific courses that teach generally accepted accounting practices and how to use major accounting software applications like Turbotax and SAP’s financial models. Accounting is more than simply tracking expenses, generating invoices and collecting receipts. It also involves determining the taxes owed per quarter (and paying them), determining payroll for thousands of employees, properly routing 401K contributions and processing wage garnishments.
It is common practice today for programmers to earn a degree in computer science or information systems. Programmers used to earn degrees in mathematics. Those with a mathematics degree and coursework in programming languages like SAS (Statistical Analysis Software), Python and SQL will have ample job opportunities.
Operations research analysts are the people who plan the maintenance schedules, travel schedules and crew assignments for the airport to minimize downtime, maximize throughput and minimize delays. Operations research analysts work with Fedex and other shipping companies to plan the shipping of millions of packages to maximize throughput and minimize delays. These planning operations involve millions of linear algebra equations solved via computer with a variety of constraints, such as manpower and money. While operations research itself is typically taught in the industrial engineering or business department, math majors can find employment in the planning, logistics and operations research departments of many large firms. The primary employers in this field are transportation firms like airlines and shipping companies and shipping services like Fedex and UPS.
One of the primary sources of employment for math majors is in the educational field. Teaching kindergarten through twelfth grade requires at a minimum a bachelor’s degree in education and a minor in math. Dual degrees in education and mathematics allow you to work in K-12 education or the private sector. A master’s degree is a minimum to teach college level mathematics, whether at a junior college or 4 year university.
Math majors with coursework in statistics can find work as statisticians. While the Census Bureau is a major employer for statisticians, they aren’t the only ones. The federal government takes surveys of business owners, the unemployed and others to generate regularly snapshots then expanded to estimate the true state of the economy. The government performs studies on individual household spending to determine how much needs to be allocated to those on SNAP / food stamps and calculates the cost of living based on a basket of goods to determine whether or not Social Security payments will rise with the cost of living.
Statisticians are regularly employed by survey companies to determine which products are most appealing to the targeted audience or which consumers would be most interested in a potential product. Market research is one of the most lucrative employment fields for someone with a degree in mathematics; business pays well for the service, there is constant demand because businesses don’t want to develop a product no one will buy and will pay to better market existing products to the most profitable demographic groups.
Cryptography is the process of hiding information and decrypting it. During the Cold War with the Soviet Union, the federal government hired math majors to decrypt Soviet communications. Today, cryptography is much more mainstream. Someone working in cryptography may work for the CIA or NSA decoding encrypted messages, implement stronger cryptography for banks to protect financial transactions or work for the police breaking the layers of secrecy surrounding child porn file sharing networks.
This is by no means a comprehensive list of careers for math majors, but it is a good starting place for those considering what to do with a math major.
Education in the field of science, technology, engineering and mathematics is considered indispensible for a modern citizen. No wonder STEM is touted as the hottest topic across the globe. The nation’s dynamic growth and economic prosperity is closely associated with every student’s success in the STEM field. STEM careers are in high demand these days as science and engineering sector has shown sustained growth for more than half a century. It has also been estimated that seven out of ten fastest growing occupations are in the STEM field. As per the studies conducted by the Bureau of labor statistics, STEM careers account for 10% of the jobs in U.S and pay wages double the U.S average pay scale.
Best Stem Careers List
1) Petroleum Engineer
They must have a bachelor’s degree in engineering, preferably petroleum engineering. However candidates with mechanical engineering or chemical engineering are also hired. Employment opportunities for petroleum engineers are expected to grow by 26% from 2012 to 2022. This is indeed much faster when compared to other occupations. Petroleum engineers quench the world’s endless thirst for oil and hence command high salaries. As per the data released by the Bureau of labor statistics in the year 2011 the average salary of a petroleum engineer is $138, 000 per annum.
2) Nuclear Engineer
To become a nuclear engineer you should possess a bachelor’s degree in nuclear engineering. However, employers value experience also. Employment opportunities are estimated to grow by 9% from 2012 to 2022. In the year 2012, the bureau of labor statistics revealed that the median annual salary of a nuclear engineer was $104, 270.
3) Marine Engineer
For entry level jobs a person need to complete a bachelor’s degree in marine engineering. Job opportunities in marine engineering are estimated to increase by 17% between 2010 and 2020. According to the reports furnished by the BLS in the year 2011 the annual average salary for marine engineers was $91, 730.
4) Chemical Engineer
To become a chemical engineer a person requires an education in chemical engineering at either the undergraduate level or graduate level. The BLS has predicted that the need for chemical engineers will shoot up by 6% from the year 2010 to 2020. It has also estimated the annual median salary for a chemical engineer for the year 2012 as $94, 350.
5) Computer and Information Research Scientist
In order to become a computer and information research scientist a candidate must have completed his PhD in computer science or related field. Job opportunities for a computer scientist are projected to grow by 15% from 2012 to 2022. The median annual salary for a computer and information research scientist was estimated at $102, 190 in the year 2012.
6) Aerospace Engineer
An aspiring candidate must successfully complete a bachelor’s degree in aerospace or aeronautical engineering from an accredited institution. As per the studies conducted by the BLS the job prospects was estimated to increase by 7% from the year 2012 to 2022. Aeronautical engineers are expected to take home a median annual salary of $105, 450 as per the data published by BLS in the year 2013.
7) Marine Architect
To become a marine architect a person has to possess a bachelor’s degree in marine engineering or naval architecture or marine systems engineering or marine engineering technology. Job opportunities for marine architects are expected to grow by 10% from 2012 to 2022. As per the results published in 2012 the median annual salary for a marine architect was $88, 100.
8) Nuclear Medicine Technologist
To become a nuclear medicine technologist the candidate has to a successfully complete an associate degree in nuclear medicine technology. Career prospects are projected by 20% from 2012 to 2022. Similarly the annual median salary for a nuclear medicine technologist was estimated by BLS as $70, 180 in the year 2012.
9) Business Intelligence Analyst
The applicant needs to possess a bachelor’s degree in computer science or information science. Job openings in this rare specialty are expected to grow by 22% from 2010 to 2020. The median annual salary for a business intelligence analyst is estimated at $79, 680 in the year 2012.
10) Software Developer
In order to become a software developer the person should possess a bachelor’s degree in computer science or software engineering. The BLS has estimated a drastic employment growth of 32% from 2010 to 2020 and a median annual salary of $99, 000 in the year 2012.
From the above discussed data it is apparent that the fastest growing and highest paid jobs fall under the STEM field category. If you are considering a career in the STEM field the above information will be highly useful.
Basically STEM is an academic field in higher learning. It consists of four core subjects. The subjects are, science, technology engineering and mathematics. Any degree in these four subjects grouped as STEM is therefore referred to as a STEM degree. The modern world is in dire need of STEM degree graduates. New institutions are being developed each day to specialize in offering STEM courses and the preexisting universities are working hard to improve in this field in terms of study facilities, research and teachers. These courses are basically aimed towards technological growth which is a key to any modernized society’s development.
Careers in STEM
One of the fields with the highest number of job positions in the modern world is STEM. In exception of medical sciences, it involves all other science and engineering disciplinary programs such as computer sciences, information sciences, geo sciences physical sciences and mathematical sciences, biological sciences, engineering, environmental sciences among others. STEM is therefore a broad field and jobs are dependent on an individual specific degree choice. Most institutions start preparing their students for the STEM courses some years before college and most governments are facilitating this too.
Why STEM Has The Best Jobs
Currently STEM has some of the highest paying jobs all over the world. Several departments and sectors such as commerce department, transport department, engineering department among others are coming up with new jobs for STEM degree graduates. The sectors include automotive, energy, healthcare, information and geospatial technology among others
Most countries understand that STEM graduates hold a very major role in achieving sustainable growth of their economies and are working day in day out to make sure their institutions bake the best students who don’t necessarily have to rely on employment but also be the job makers and promising investors.
UNCF research shows there is likely to be a big labour deficit in between 2016 and 2021 and afterwards due to the high retirement rate of workers in the STEM. There is hence expected to be hundreds of job opportunities that have to be sealed hence students in the field currently have a bright career future. The rate at which new jobs especially in technology are increasing may course a big workforce deficit if more graduates in the subjects don’t get into the job market soon.
Teachers in the STEM field also have high chances of getting well-paying jobs. Most universities and colleges are having their teachers broaden their knowledge so to cope with the rapid rate at which the STEM field is growing. United States looses an estimated 30000 teachers in the field yearly. Some teachers also lack much exposure to the current STEM. To meet the STEM field requirements, the government will have to employ more than 240000 teachers in the next ten years.
No specific definition is given to STEM jobs hence giving an estimate of expected income may be a bit difficult. However, any course in the STEM field is among the most promising in the world currently and all you would need, is a competent degree and adequate interpersonal skills to strengthen it. Who knows? You might be the next person to bring a multibillion idea to the world too.
Below, you will find a current list of the available STEM Majors as of 2014.
- Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture
- Animal Sciences
- Agricultural Animal Breeding
- Animal Health
- Animal Nutrition
- Dairy Science
- Livestock Management
- Poultry Science
- Animal Sciences
- Food Science
- Food Technology and Processing
- Food Science and Technology
- Plant Sciences
- Agronomy and Crop Science
- Horticultural Science
- Agricultural and Horticultural Plant Breeding
- Plant Protection and Integrated Pest Management
- Range Science and Management
- Plant Sciences
- Soil Science and Agronomy
- Soil Chemistry and Physics
- Soil Microbiology
- Soil Sciences
- Natural Resources/Conservation
- Environmental Studies
- Environmental Science
- Natural Resources Conservation and Research
- Water, Wetlands, and Marine Resources Management
- Forest Sciences and Biology
- Urban Forestry
- Wood Science and Wood Products/Pulp and Paper Technology
- Wildlife, Fish and Wildlands Science and Management
- Architectural and Building Sciences/Technology
- Digital Communication and Media/Multimedia
- Animation, Interactive Technology, Video Graphics and Special Effects
- Computer and Information Sciences
- Artificial Intelligence
- Information Technology
- Computer and Information Sciences
- Computer Programming/Programmer
- Computer Programming, Specific Applications
- Computer Programming, Vendor/Product Certification
- Computer Programming
- Data Processing and Data Processing Technology/Technician
- Information Science/Studies
- Computer Systems Analysis/Analyst
- Computer Science
- Web Page, Digital/Multimedia and Information Resources Design
- Data Modeling/Warehousing and Database Administration
- Computer Graphics
- Modeling, Virtual Environments and Simulation
- Computer Software and Media Applications
- Computer Systems Networking and Telecommunications
- Network and System Administration/Administrator
- System, Networking, and LAN/WAN Management/Manager
- Computer and Information Systems Security/Information Assurance
- Web/Multimedia Management and Webmaster
- Information Technology Project Management11 111006 Computer Support Specialist
- Computer/Information Technology Services Administration and Management
- Educational/Instructional Technology
- Educational Evaluation and Research
- Educational Statistics and Research Methods
- Aerospace, Aeronautical and Astronautical/Space Engineering
- Agricultural Engineering
- Architectural Engineering
- Bioengineering and Biomedical Engineering
- Ceramic Sciences and Engineering
- Chemical Engineering
- Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
- Chemical Engineering
- Civil Engineering
- Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering
- Structural Engineering
- Transportation and Highway Engineering
- Water Resources Engineering
- Civil Engineering
- Computer Engineering
- Computer Hardware Engineering
- Computer Software Engineering
- Computer Engineering
- Electrical and Electronics Engineering
- Laser and Optical Engineering
- Telecommunications Engineering
- Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering
- Engineering Mechanics
- Engineering Physics/Applied Physics
- Engineering Science14 141401 Environmental/Environmental Health Engineering
- Materials Engineering
- Mechanical Engineering
- Metallurgical Engineering
- Mining and Mineral Engineering
- Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering
- Nuclear Engineering
- Ocean Engineering
- Petroleum Engineering
- Systems Engineering
- Textile Sciences and Engineering
- Polymer/Plastics Engineering
- Construction Engineering
- Forest Engineering
- Industrial Engineering
- Manufacturing Engineering
- Operations Research
- Surveying Engineering
- Geological/Geophysical Engineering
- Paper Science and Engineering
- Electromechanical Engineering
- Mechatronics, Robotics, and Automation Engineering
- Biochemical Engineering
- Engineering Chemistry
- Biological/Biosystems Engineering
- Engineering Technology
- Architectural Engineering Technology/Technician
- Civil Engineering Technology/Technician
- Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering
- Laser and Optical Technology/Technician
- Telecommunications Integrated Circuit Design
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering Technologies/Technicians
- Biomedical Technology/Technician
- Electromechanical Technology/Electromechanical Engineering
- Instrumentation Technology/Technician
- Robotics Technology/Technician
- Automation Engineer Technology/Technician
- Electromechanical and Instrumentation and Maintenance Technologies/Technicians
- Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
- Energy Management and Systems Technology/Technician
- Solar Energy Technology/Technician
- Water Quality and Wastewater Treatment Management and Recycling
- Environmental Engineering Technology/Environmental Technology
- Hazardous Materials Management and Waste Technology/Technician
- Environmental Control Technologies/Technicians
- Plastics and Polymer Engineering Technology/Technician
- Metallurgical Technology/Technician
- Industrial Technology/Technician
- Manufacturing Engineering Technology/Technician
- Welding Engineering Technology/Technician
- Chemical Engineering Technology/Technician
- Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology
- Industrial Production Technologies/Technicians
- Occupational Safety and Health Technology/Technician
- Quality Control Technology/Technician
- Industrial Safety Technology/Technician
- Hazardous Materials Information Systems Technology/Technician
- Quality Control and Safety Technologies/Technicians
- Automotive Engineering Technology/Technician
- Mechanical Engineering/Mechanical Technology/Technician
- Mechanical Engineering Related Technologies/Technicians
- Mining Technology/Technician
- Petroleum Technology/Technician
- Mining and Petroleum Technologies/Technicians
- Construction Engineering Technology/Technician
- Surveying Technology/Surveying
- Hydraulics and Fluid Power Technology/Technician
- Computer Engineering Technology/Technician
- Computer Technology/Computer Systems Technology
- Computer Hardware Technology/Technician
- Computer Software Technology/Technician
- Computer Engineering Technologies/Technicians
- Drafting and Design Technology/Technician
- CAD/CADD Drafting and/or Design Technology/Technician
- Architectural Drafting and Architectural CAD/CADD
- Civil Drafting and Civil Engineering CAD/CADD
- Electrical/Electronics Drafting and Electrical/Electronics CAD/CADD
- Mechanical Drafting and Mechanical Drafting CAD/CADD
- Drafting/Design Engineering Technologies/Technicians
- Nuclear Engineering Technology/Technician
- Engineering/Industrial Management
- Engineering Design
- Packaging Science
- Engineering-Related Fields
- Engineering Technologies and Engineering-Related Fields
- Biology/Biological Sciences
- Biomedical Sciences26 260202 Biochemistry
- Molecular Biology
- Molecular Biochemistry
- Molecular Biophysics
- Structural Biology
- Radiation Biology/Radiobiology
- Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
- Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology
- Botany/Plant Biology
- Plant Pathology/Phytopathology
- Plant Physiology
- Plant Molecular Biology
- Botany/Plant Biology
- Cell/Cellular Biology and Histology
- Developmental Biology and Embryology
- Cell/Cellular and Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology and Anatomy
- Cell/Cellular Biology and Anatomical Sciences
- Medical Microbiology and Bacteriology
- Microbiology and Immunology
- Microbiological Sciences and Immunology
- Zoology/Animal Biology
- Animal Physiology
- Animal Behavior and Ethology
- Wildlife Biology
- Zoology/Animal Biology
- Molecular Genetics
- Microbial and Eukaryotic Genetics
- Animal Genetics
- Plant Genetics
- Human/Medical Genetics
- Genome Sciences/Genomics
- Molecular Physiology
- Cell Physiology
- Reproductive Biology
- Cardiovascular Science
- Exercise Physiology
- Vision Science/Physiological Optics
- Pathology/Experimental Pathology
- Oncology and Cancer Biology
- Aerospace Physiology and Medicine
- Physiology, Pathology, and Related Sciences
- Molecular Pharmacology
- Molecular Toxicology
- Environmental Toxicology
- Pharmacology and Toxicology
- Pharmacology and Toxicology
- Biometry/Biometrics26 261102 Biostatistics
- Computational Biology
- Biomathematics, Bioinformatics, and Computational Biology
- Marine Biology and Biological Oceanography
- Evolutionary Biology
- Aquatic Biology/Limnology
- Environmental Biology
- Population Biology
- Conservation Biology
- Systematic Biology/Biological Systematics
- Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
- Ecology, Evolution, Systematics and Population Biology
- Molecular Medicine
- Neurobiology and Anatomy
- Neurobiology and Behavior
- Neurobiology and Neurosciences
- Biological and Biomedical Sciences
- Algebra and Number Theory
- Analysis and Functional Analysis
- Geometry/Geometric Analysis
- Topology and Foundations
- Applied Mathematics
- Computational Mathematics
- Computational and Applied Mathematics27 270305 Financial Mathematics
- Mathematical Biology
- Applied Mathematics
- Mathematical Statistics and Probability
- Mathematics and Statistics
- Mathematics and Statistics
- Air Science/Airpower Studies
- Air and Space Operational Art and Science
- Naval Science and Operational Studies
- Strategic Intelligence
- Signal/Geospatial Intelligence
- Command & Control (C3, C4I) Systems and Operations
- Information Operations/Joint Information Operations
- Information/Psychological Warfare and Military Media Relations
- Cyber/Electronic Operations and Warfare
- ntelligence, Command Control and Information Operations
- Combat Systems Engineering
- Directed Energy Systems
- Engineering Acoustics
- Low-Observables and Stealth Technology
- Space Systems Operations
- Operational Oceanography
- Undersea Warfare
- Military Applied Sciences
- Aerospace Ground Equipment Technology
- Air and Space Operations Technology
- Aircraft Armament Systems Technology
- Explosive Ordinance/Bomb Disposal
- Joint Command/Task Force (C3, C4I) Systems
- Military Information Systems Technology
- Missile and Space Systems Technology
- Munitions Systems/Ordinance Technology
- Radar Communications and Systems Technology
- Military Systems and Maintenance Technology
- Military Technologies and Applied Sciences
- Biological and Physical Sciences
- Systems Science and Theory
- Mathematics and Computer Science
- Behavioral Sciences
- Natural Sciences
- Nutrition Sciences
- Cognitive Science
- Human Biology
- Computational Science
- Human Computer Interaction
- Marine Sciences
- Sustainability Studies
- Physical Sciences
- Planetary Astronomy and Science
- Astronomy and Astrophysics
- Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology
- Atmospheric Chemistry and Climatology
- Atmospheric Physics and Dynamics
- Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology
- Analytical Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Physical Chemistry
- Polymer Chemistry
- Chemical Physics
- Environmental Chemistry
- Forensic Chemistry
- Theoretical Chemistry
- Geology/Earth Science
- Geophysics and Seismology
- Hydrology and Water Resources Science
- Geochemistry and Petrology
- Oceanography, Chemical and Physical
- Geological and Earth Sciences/Geosciences
- Atomic/Molecular Physics
- Elementary Particle Physics
- Plasma and High-Temperature Physics
- Nuclear Physics
- Optics/Optical Sciences
- Condensed Matter and Materials Physics
- Theoretical and Mathematical Physics
- Materials Science
- Materials Chemistry
- Materials Sciences
- Physical Sciences
- Science Technologies/Technicians
- Biology Technician/Biotechnology Laboratory Technician
- Industrial Radiologic Technology/Technician
- Nuclear/Nuclear Power Technology/Technician
- Nuclear and Industrial Radiologic Technologies/Technicians
- Chemical Technology/Technician
- Chemical Process Technology
- Physical Science Technologies/Technicians
- Science Technologies/Technicians
- Cognitive Psychology and Psycholinguistics
- Comparative Psychology
- Developmental and Child Psychology
- Experimental Psychology
- Personality Psychology
- Physiological Psychology/Psychobiology
- Social Psychology
- Psychometrics and Quantitative Psychology
- Research and Experimental Psychology
- Forensic Science and Technology
- Cyber/Computer Forensics and Counterterrorism
- Econometrics and Quantitative Economics
- Geographic Information Science and Cartography
- Aeronautics/Aviation/Aerospace Science and Technology
- Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology/Technologist
- Medical Scientist
- Pharmaceutics and Drug Design
- Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry
- Natural Products Chemistry and Pharmacognosy
- Clinical and Industrial Drug Development
- Pharmacoeconomics/Pharmaceutical Economics
- Industrial and Physical Pharmacy and Cosmetic Sciences51
- Pharmaceutical Sciences
- Environmental Health
- Health/Medical Physics
- Veterinary Anatomy
- Veterinary Physiology
- Veterinary Microbiology and Immunobiology
- Veterinary Pathology and Pathobiology
- Veterinary Toxicology and Pharmacology
- Veterinary Preventive Medicine Epidemiology and Public Health
- Veterinary Infectious Diseases
- Medical Informatics
- Management Science
- Business Statistics
- Actuarial Science
- Management Science and Quantitative Methods
The core of every computer and the bread and butter that will power the entire machine and determine its performance is the CPU. However, going for an expensive one is not always the best choice. A gamer will surely need something powerful with at least four physical cores. An average user that only focuses on productivity tools and web browsing will find that a modest dual core CPU can do the job just right.
Motherboards will host all other components. In order to get it right it is highly important to match the motherboard’s socket to the CPU socket. This will ensure that the parts are compatible and unpleasant situations in which a product must be returned is avoided. In terms of performance, gaming motherboards tend to be more expensive. They usually go from $100 to $500 or more depending on chipset and features. The best ones feature SLI or Crossfire technologies which enables the user to mount two graphics cards to boost the performance of games.
For less resource hungry applications, a going for a motherboard priced at $50 to $90.
Computers store data on Hard Drives or HDDs and the more space the better. Unfortunately, performance is expensive. Traditional HDDs tend to be slower but have a better price per gigabyte. Users interested in photo and video editing, gamers and hardcore coders might want to get an Solid State Drive or SSD for faster loading times. They do not improve the visual performance of games but the can reduce the loading times to 25%. Video and photo editors will notice the same kind of performance boost. Regular users that focus only on browsing and office applications should go for a HDD as it is much cheaper.
The Video Card
Unless the system is designed for a gamer or 3D graphic artist, the onboard Video Card or Graphics Card that is embedded in the CPU is enough. No money needs to be invested in this component. The ones that do want performance to play games should invest some money into one.
The RAM (Random Access Memory)
The only applications that can consume a lot of RAM are games and video/photo editing software. Everything else can work just fine with a single board of 4 GB(gigabytes). From a performance perspective, quantity matters. At least 8 GB are recommended for resource hungry games and programs. Brands are not important and compatibility is not an issue for this computer part.
The CPU Cooler
When purchasing a CPU, a cooler would be required to make sure that it does not overheat. Most vendors offer Box versions of processors that contain a cooler but for overclockers and gamers, an aftermarket cooling solution is highly recommended. For extreme performance tweaks and system stability, liquid cooling is the best option out there. The liquid user is completely safe and even if it is spilled on the components it will not damage them.
Computer cases have no restrictions or compatibility issues. It is all up to the user which case he likes and affords. Internal space might be a selection criteria for some. The bigger the case the more space the user will have for cable management and additional coolers. Users that want something fancy might want to check the ones that have a side window which makes it possible to see inside even when it is closed.
The Power Supply
The Power Supply or the PSU is the most disregarded component. It plays an important role and getting a cheap one can cause the system to be unstable. Users with no aspirations for high performance, multiple hard drives, two or more video cards and additional case coolers should get a 500 Watt PSU. For gaming systems, at least 600 Watts is required to avoid sudden computer power downs at high load.
The Sound Card
Even if it is not a vital component as all motherboards have a sound card embedded by default, some users might want to get a dedicated sound card for a better fidelity. The audio quality difference is notable but sometimes it is not worth spending the money.
Additional Accessories And Tuning
Just like a car, computers can be tuned and customized with various parts such as additional case fans with leds, RAM coolers, HDD coolers, aftermarket cooling solutions, dedicated sound card and so on.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a revolutionary method used to analyze and amplify short DNA (or RNA) sequences in a sample with small quantities of RNA or DNA. PCR amplifies the selected sequence of DNA segment producing millions of copies within a few hours. Initially, DNA or RNA amplification involved cloning the selected segment using bacteria. This took weeks to amplify. But with PCR, it only takes few hours to produce millions of DNA sequence of interested.
Polymerase chain reaction requires the following components
- Two primers: These are short pieces of single-stranded DNA sequence that are complimentary from beginning to the end of the targeted DNA sequence to be copied.
- Polymerase: This is a type of enzyme that moves along starting from the end of the primers synthesizing new strand of DNA complimentary to the targeted DNA sequence. A polymerase commonly used is Taq DNA polymerase
- DNA template: This is the sample DNA that has the DNA sequence of interest.
- Nucleotides: These are single units of bases C, T, G and A that polymerase needs to make the new DNA strands.
How is PCR done?
Three major steps are involved in polymerase chain reaction. Done in an automated thermal cycler, also called a PCR machine, these three steps are repeated for 30 to 40 cycles with each cycle producing a new strand of DNA. The automated cycler is a device that heats and cools the test tubes contain the sample mixture in a repeated cycle. The cooling and heating process is essential since the three steps takes place at a different temperature.
These three steps are
- Denaturation: A temperature of 94 C (201.2 F) is applied to the original double-stranded DNA molecule so as to open it into two pieces of single-stranded DNA
- Annealing: At a temperature of 54 C (129.2 F), the primers in the reaction mixture anneal or pairs up with the single-stranded DNA template (the sequence to be copied). Starting from the primers, the polymerase attaches and starts copying the template.
- Extension: At a temperature of 72 C (161.6 F), the DNA building blocks or nucleotides which are complimentary to the DNA template of interest are coupled to the primers. This produces a double-stranded DNA molecule.
Within one amplification cycle, a single double-stranded DNA template is copied and amplified resulting into two separate double-stranded DNA segment. The two new DNA segments now will be available for the next amplification cycle and as the cycles continue, more and more copies of double-stranded DNA segment will be generated thus increasing the number of interested template.
How was PCR discovered?
Polymerase chain reaction technique was invented by Kary Mullis in 1985 when he was working in Emeryville, California for a biotechnology company known as Cetus Corporation. The PCR technique allowed scientist to make millions of DNA or RNA copies from a sample that has minute quantities of DNA or RNA.
Since then, the PCR has revolutionized many aspects of scientific research including;
- Criminology where it is used to link specific individuals to samples of hair and blood obtained from a crime scene using DNA comparison.
- Detection of HIV virus in human cells and diagnosis of genetic defects.
- Affects evolutionary studies since small quantities of DNA in fossils can be amplified to large quantities allowing further studies.
- Establishing paternity or biological identity
The widespread and innumerable uses of PCR have made it to become an important tool for use in DNA forensic laboratories among other laboratories that analyze, detect and study genetic materials either in animals or human.
Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction
Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a technique that is highly sensitive and used to detect and quantify the messenger RNA (mRNA). It consists of two main parts;
- Reverse transcription: Involve Synthesis of complimentary DNA (cDNA) from RNA
- Polymerase chain reaction: Amplification of specific cDNA
This technique is used to measure viral load in HIV patients and to detect other RNA viruses such as mumps and measles.
ATP testing is used for measuring the growing microorganisms by using adenosine triphosphate, or ATP for their detection.
ATP is an energy molecule found in living cells, which gives a direct measure of their health and biological concentration. ATP can be quantified by using a luminometer for measuring the light produced through its reaction with the enzyme luciferase.
ATP tests are useful for:
- Guide biocide dosing programs
- Determine corrosion and deposit process type
- Measure equipment or product sanitation
- Manage fermentation processes
- Determine drinking water cleanliness
- Assess soil activity
- Control biological treatment reactors
The first generation ATP tests were derived from hygiene monitoring applications and therefore the samples were relatively free of interferences. The second generation tests are designed specifically for industrial applications, wastewater, and water. In the second generation ATP tests the samples contain, for the most part, a variety of interfering components.
There are two types of ATP within a water sample containing microorganisms:
- Extracellular ATP, which is located outside of biological cells. The extracellular ATP has been released from stressed or dead organisms.
- Intracellular ATP, which is contained inside the living biological cells.
It is important to perform accurate measurements of these two types of ATP in order to assess biological health and to control water and wastewater processes.
ATP bioluminescence tests have moved mainstream. They are also used in the food industry in order to keep food manufacturing clean. The tests are a reliable, simple, and rapid way to monitor surface contamination in the food industry and to detect contaminants in beverages or drinking water. For surface contamination testing it is used a pen like device which is swabbed over the tested area, then inserted into the handheld reader called relative light unit or RLU, on short. The results are displayed within seconds and can indicate if the sample is clean or unclean. The tests are cheap, as they cost only a few dollars per test. The ATP methods only give a broad indication of the presence of organic substances and not specific microorganisms containing ATP. For this reason they need to be used together with microbial culture tests in order to indicate the type of microorganisms present in the sample.
Using surface ATP bioluminescence testing in the food industry is a proactive tool to assure the processing equipment is clean. It is estimated that 80 percent of the food production facilities in North America and more that 80 percent in Europe are using this ATP testing technology for sanitation monitoring and validation of whether the processing equipment is clean enough to be used for food production.
The widespread adoption of ATP testing resulted from a few important advances in the technology. The instrumentation increased in performance and utility and decreased in size and price. The chemistry improved to the current use of synthetic enzyme that is more temperature tolerant and robust. The ATP testing technology is much easier to use today than it was twenty years ago. The handheld testing devices have a weight of just about a pound. The modern ATP testing devices also include software and in many cases they can be linked to databases in order to help the production managers in the decision making process. It is estimated that the ATP testing will soon spread on new markets such as fast food, hospitals and health services.
Hygiene monitoring is critical when it comes to HACCP compliance. It is common for industries like prepared and processed foods, beverage and dairy to enroll in a HACCP program. Without proper hygiene monitoring by using atp testing kits or other means, there could be many quality issues.
A manufacturing company in any of the aforementioned industries might not only lose its image but end up with a huge loss if there was ever a product recall. With effective hygiene monitoring during food or beverage production, right from the beginning of the process till the end, there is hardly any possibility of product contamination. One of the best methods for contamination testing right now is ATP testing. This method of testing is so simple that anyone, even a person without any scientific background can carry out the test.
In addition, the test results are almost immediate, with some brands of luminometers giving the results in less than 15 seconds without any effect on accuracy at all. ATP or adenosine triphosphate is evident in all living animals and plants including microorganisms like bacteria, mold and yeast. It is actually a molecule which resides within the cell of a living being. So the presence of ATP in water, blood, food or such samples prove the existence of some kind of microorganism in the sample. In other words, there is some level of contamination.
When it comes to an atp testing kit, it normally comprises of cotton swabs and a handheld or portable luminometer. To begin with, the tester should wear a pair of suitable gloves. The type of gloves depends on where he is working. Then he uses a cotton swab to swab the necessary sample, food, water or anything else. The cotton swab is then put into a removable chamber, which is later inserted back into the handheld luminometer.
The reading on the device is usually in RLU or Relative Light Units. Since ATP transfers chemical energy within the cell, the concept of quantified energy presence is used. The reagent in the chamber has an enzyme called luciferase, which reacts with ATP. The ATP energy is then quantified in the form of light and measured in RLU. A higher RLU reading is an indication of more ATP presence, which means a higher level of contamination.
Currently, there are various brands of atp testing kits on the market. They vary in prices but generally, such a kit costs around $1500 on the market. Compared to sending samples for testing somewhere or establishing an internal laboratory to check on product contamination, buying this kind of kit is definitely more cost effective. Moreover, a great deal of time and energy can be saved. The test results are almost immediate and accurate.
Any layman can use this device, even the cleaner. Testing the contamination level of production, testing or surgical equipment surfaces after cleaning is a smart move to reduce the possibility of contamination. If the contamination level is high, then another cleaning can be done. So atp testing kits are useful not only for monitoring contamination of products during manufacturing but also for cleaning purposes at hospitals and such.
PCR stands for Polymerase Chain Reaction, which is often used in biological and chemical labs. A thermal cycler, or PCR machine, has the ability to produce DNA copies of a specific segment that can range from thousands to millions in numbers. (Learn More: What Is The Polymerase Chain Reaction?)
This machine, also called a DNA amplifier, can serve various purposes such as gene analysis, the evolutionary study between organisms or phylogeny and for diagnosing various long term diseases with the help of DNA structure.
Also, it’s used in the field of forensic sciences in arriving at the results based on fingerprints patterns and for testing paternity. Thanks to Kary B. Mullis, who invented PCR technique in 1985!
How PCR Machines Work
The basic function of this machine is copying the sections of DNA and this is performed though a heating cycle. This is performed when the temperature rises to 95 degree Celsius which in turn melts the DNA strands. This melting of DNA strands causes the backbones of sugar phosphate to split apart.
Then as the temperature lowers, the primers bind them 3 inch end of each sequence of target. Primers are able to perform this task as the DNA polymerase taq and free nucleotides aid it in the process.
This process goes on so that there are two strands of double partially stranded molecules of DNA at the end of first cycle. The same process continues to be repeated again and again causing thousands of copies of the particular target sequence.
Features and Uses for a PCR Machine
There are various features of attraction in a DNA amplifier, such as the automated ability, array of thermo cyclers and models, number of manufacturers to choose from, different cooling system designs, variant tubing capacity, heating block in various sizes, multiple heating blocks models and ability to reach to high amplifications within short time.
Though these thermal cyclers are essential tool for all the biologists, they are not very easy to afford. In spite of its price, this DNA amplifier can be found to be extensively used in various laboratories in universal standards, public school facilities, health centers and forensic departments.
There are various advantages of using an automated thermal cycler in comparison to the traditional ones, like the former helps in clinical diagnosis, finds DNA sequencing, medicines, gene manipulation, gene expression study, genomics comparative study and helps in cloning of genes.
Types of PCR Machines
A DNA amplifier is highly versatile in nature and serves great purpose in various fields. It is available in various types to suit the requirements of different sector and other applications. Some of these types are:
Quantitative and Real Time PCR Machine
To quantify and detect DNA sample, this type of machine is widely used for amplification. This thermal cycler uses DNA dyes and fluorescent reporter for its method of probing.
Inverse PCR Machine
This is used to carry out amplification method that helps you identify the flanking sequence of different genomic inserts. This is DND amplification from known sequence to unknown sequence.
Anchored PCR Machine
When small sequence of nucleotides needs to be tagged to a particular DNA of target, the anchor is frequented by poly G by using poly C primer.
Reverse Transcriptase PCR Machine
This is used of RNA molecules amplification. This type of machine is highly used for profiling expression, finding gene expression and identifying RNA sequence in a transcript.
Asymmetric PCR Machine
When there is a requirement for single strand molecules synthesis of DNA, which is essential for DNA sequencing, this PCR machine is widely used. It can perform 20 to 25 cycles of amplification using two primers. When one cycle is completed, one primer gets exhausted and in another 5 to 10 cycles, single strand DNA is produced.
Allele Specific PCR Machine
When there is a need to identify and detect a selective single nucleotide polymorphism, this thermal cycler is widely used. It uses a special design primer, which will match or not match the alleles at the primer end of 3′.
Colony PCR Machine
This machine is used to detect the formation of bacterial colonies after a plasmid transformation.
Conventional PCR Machine
This makes use of standard Polymerase Chain Reaction process that helps you produce billion copies of DNA and RNA strand.
Nested PCR Machine
After the initial 30 to 35 Polymerase Chain Reaction cycles, the new primers are nested along with the old primers to aid in a sensitive process as it reduces the risk involved in it.
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